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Sankara Nethralaya
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Paediatric Ophthalmology

Brief History

According to the World Health Organization in May 2009 more than 314 million people worldwide were visually impaired out of this 45 million were blind and 85% people had low vision & avoidable blindness, childhood blindness remains a significant problem, with an estimated 12 million blind children below age 15. Sankara Nethralaya strives to eliminate avoidable blindness and restore sight in the poor needy people.

The Paediatric Ophthalmology Department at Sankara Nethralaya deals with eye problems in children. Adult patients suffering from squint and double vision are also examined and treated effectively.

In Sankara Nethralaya an average of 26,000 paediatric patients clinically examined and treated in a year, out of this an average of 10,000 – 11,000 paediatric patients treated by paediatric consultants. As well yearly an average of 4,800 paediatric patients undergoes surgical procedure in a year out of this 1100 paediatric patients treated by paediatric Department consultants.

  Ophthalmic issues the department addresses

Children may not complain if they do not see out of one or both eyes. Sometimes the only clue may be poor performance in School, as well viewing the blackboard at a very close distance. Hence all children need an eye exam at the time of starting Schooling.

Of the eye problems in children, the most important are refractive errors, squint and amblyopia.

Refractive error or the need for glasses is the single most important cause of vision impairment in children. This may lead to permanent deficiency in vision if not detected and treated early.

Squint, also known as cross eyes, is the condition where the eyes do not work together. Treatment includes glasses, eye exercises or eye muscle surgery.

Lazy eye or amblyopia is the term for poor vision in one or both eyes. It can result from refractive error, squint or several other causes. This needs to be identified and treated at an early age to recover vision.

Infants born prematurely are at risk for developing Retinopathy of pre-maturity (ROP) which may lead to permanent blindness. Sankara Nethralaya has been in the forefront in India in the treatment of this disorder.

Cataract (opacification of the lens) can occur in children. This may be present since birth or result from injury. The treatment involves surgical procedures but very often treatment of lazy eye.

There are several causes of double vision and squint in adults as well. These are managed by exercise, special glasses, and eye muscle surgery when required.

A child with any of the following needs to have a complete eye examination

Poor performance in School
Viewing objects at a very close distance
Eyes shaking
Family history of eye problems or wearing glasses


Paediatric Optical Service

Art of the vision treatment the well equipped and fascinated paediatric optical service is built in the paediatric wing for the convenience of the paediatric patients. All the colorful attractive quality frames and glasses (Essilor) are available for the patients comfort.

Orthoptics Evaluation

Low Vision Aids

Genetic Counseling

Training and courses offered

Fellowship Details

Pediatric Ophthalmology Fellowship (Duration – 18 Months)

Department Details

Director: Dr. T S Surendran, DO. M. Phil (Head – Pediatric Ophalmology Dept.)
Deputy Director: Dr. Sumitha Agarkar, MS, DNB
Senior Consultant: Dr. S Meenakshi, MS (AB) (Director Academics)
Consultant: Dr. Kavitha Kalaivani, DO
Associate consultant:Dr V Akila Ramkumar, MS, DNB, FICO

The Paediatric Ophthalmology fellowship started in Year 1993.

Our Goal: The goal of our Fellowship program is to provide wide and extensive clinical, Research activity and academic stimulation with the aim of train the next generation of leaders in the field of Paediatric Ophthalmology.


The applicant must have completed Post Graduation (DNB/MS/MD) in ophthalmology from a recognized university and must be registered with Medical Council of India Candidates employed elsewhere should produce NO OBJECTION CERTIFICATE from the employer at the time of interview and have the relevant original certificates. Diploma in Ophthalmology candidates are not eligible.

Duration: 18 Months
Number of positions / Year: 2 (Every 6 months)
Starting Date: 1st April & 1st October
Application Deadline: 31st January & 31st July
Selection Process: The selection process involves a Multiple Choice Objective theory examination followed by an interview.

Clinical Responsibilities

The fellows are expected to have clinical analyses and surgical skills in paediatric patient care. The fellow is supervised in the clinical and surgical evaluation of patients and participates in surgery. The fellow is trained in the appropriate evaluation of various disorders, like history taking, clinical examination, Orthoptics evaluation, Low vision Aids of both children and adults with strabismus. He/she is expected to gain experience in various paediatric ophthalmology outpatient procedures etc.


The fellows will have opportunity to assist and perform various surgical procedures like Pediatric Cataract and Squint and exposure to ptosis, ROP, and probing.

Educational Responsibilities

The fellows will attend all educational conferences offered by Sankara Nethralaya. There will be academic meeting weekly ones. He/she is should give Journal presentation, present interesting and difficult cases for discussion in these meetings. He/she will have to keep himself/herself updated about the newer developments in the field by reading all the latest journals that are available in our library, and present interesting articles in the weekly departmental meetings. The fellows should maintain a logbook which will be evaluated by the academic director

Other Facilities:


Residential accommodation will be provided to the out station candidates (Subject to availability) at nominal cost on sharing basis.


The library houses a collection of 6000 books & journals related to ophthalmology. The reading and work area is amplified by display racks. The study area includes computer terminals, personal computers with internet access, printers, audiovisual cassette players and slide viewer.

Address for Communication

The Academic Officer
Medical Research Foundation
18, College Road
Chennai – 600 006

Download Application Form

Papers/Publications for last 10 years

Srikanth R, Meenakshi S, Chaterjee R, Mukherjee B. Orbital dermoid mimicking a monocular elevation deficiency. Oman J Ophthalmol 2012; 5:118-20.

Mukherjee B, Pagad H, Agarkar S. Restrictive strabismus: an unusual presentation of an intraorbital foreign body. Can J Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;48(1):e1-3.

Mukherjee B, Priyadarshini O, Ramasubramanian S, Agarkar S. Iatrogenic Injury to Medial Rectus after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery 2015; 67(4): 394-402.

Alam MS, Kumar PKV, Mukherjee B. Chalazion: Demographic, clinical characteristics and hisotpahtological analysis of 481 cases in a tertiary care centre. International J of Medical and Health Research, 2016;2:34-36.

Shrirao N, Sethi A, Mukherjee B. Management Strategies in Rosai-Dorfman Disease: To Do or Not To Do. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2016 Feb 22

'Alam MS, Kumar PKV. Clozapine induced cataract in a young female. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2016; 7: 184

Ramkumar VA, Agarkar S, Mukherjee B. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: Does it really increase the risk of amblyopia in children? Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;64(7):496-499. doi:10.4103/0301-4738.190101.

AIOC Ready Reckoner: Pediatric dacryocystorhinostomy. Mukherjee B, Alam MS, Banerjee M.

Oberoi P, Ramasubramanian S, Mukherjee B. Orbital dermoid presenting as a case of ptosis with monocular elevation deficiency. Can J Ophthalmol. 2016;51:e29-31.

AIOC ready Reckoner: Paralytic Strabismus. Swaminathan M. Ramasuramanian S .

AIOC ready Reckoner : Strabismus Surgery- Planning, executing and complications . TS Surendran. Ramasubramanian S.

Molinari A, Plager D, et al. Accessory extraocular muscle as a cause of restrictive strabismus. Strabismus. 2016.24: 178-183

Sundaramurthy S, Swaminathan M, et al. Homozygosity mapping guided next generation sequencing to identify the causative genetic variation in inherited retinal degenerative diseases. Journal of Human Genetics. 2016. 61: 951-958

Swaminathan M, Ramasubramanian S, Pilling R, Li J, Golnik K.. ICO-OSCAR for pediatric cataract surgical skill assessment J AAPOS. 2016 Aug;20(4):364-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2016.02.015. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Hussaindeen JR, Rakshit A, Singh NK, George R, Swaminathan M, Kapur S, Scheiman M, Ramani KK. Prevalence of non strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. Report 2 of BAND study. Clin Exp Optom. 2016 Nov 18. doi: 10.1111/cxo.12496. [Epub ahead of print]

Hussaindeen JR, Rakshit A, Singh NK, Swaminathan M, George R, Kapur S, Scheiman M, Ramani KK. Binocular vision anomalies and normative data (BAND) in Tamilnadu. Report 1. Clin Exp Optom. 2016 Oct 30. doi: 10.1111/cxo.12475. [Epub ahead of print]

Patil-Chabblani P, Murthy S, Swaminathan M. Ophthalmic profile and systemic features of pediatric facial nerve palsy. J Eye Sci. 2016;1:7

Nambiar S, Ramasubramanian S, Swaminathan M. Brown’s syndrome with ocular albinism: Case report of a rare presentation and literature review. Oman J Ophthlamol 2015; 8(2): 117-119

M Swaminathan, Shah SV, Mittal S, Gunasekaran A. Results of bilateral medial rectus recession for comitant esotropia in patients with developmental delay. Strabismus. 2014. May 5(Epub ahead of print)

Srikrupa NN, Meenakshi S, Arokiasamy T, Murali K, Soumittra N. Leber’s congenital amaurosis as the retinal degenerative phenotype in thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia: a case report. Ophthalmic Genet. 2014. 35(2). 119-24

Meenakshi S, Srikanth R. Ophthalmology section. In Case scenarios in Pediatric and Adolescent Practice. Editor. A. Parthasarathy. JP Medical Ltd. 2014

Meenakshi S, Srikanth R, Surendran TS. Ophthalmology. In Partha’s Fundamentals of Pediatrics. JP Medical Ltd 2013

Rishi P, Rishi E, Gupta A, Swaminathan M, Chhablani J. Vitreous hemorrhage in children and adolescents in India. JAAPOS. 2013. 17(1):64-9

R. Srikanth, S Meenakshi, Raka Chatterjee, Mukherjee B. Orbital dermoid mimicking a monocular elevation deficiency. Oman J Ophthalmol. 2012. 5(2): 118

R. Srikanth, Meenakshi S, Surendran T.S. In IAP Color Atlas of Pediatrics. A. Parthasarathy Editor. JP Medical Ltd. 2012

Akshay Nair, Meenakshi Swaminathan, Sandeep Mark Thirumalai. Unilateral myelinated nerve fibers associated with ipsilateral myopia and amblyopia in a 13 year old. (accepted for publication in JPOS)

R. Srikanth, S. Meenakshi. Leber Congenital Amaurosis: An Overview. Accepted for publication in DOS Times.

Meenakshi S. Cortical visual impairment. A new challenge for the future? Editorial. Oman J Ophthalmol . 2011. 4 (1): 1

R. Srikanth, S. Meenakshi. . Muscle Puzzle. Sci J Med & Vis ResFoun 2011. vol XX!X. No.2 :26,28

Mangalgi HG, Meenakshi S. Common Ophthalmic problems in Children. IJPP. 2010. 12(4):378-381.

Patil PA, Meenakshi S, Surendran TS. Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization. Oman J Ophthalmol 2010. 3(3):148-9

Chekitaan, Karthikeyan B, Meenakshi S. The results of treatment of anisomyopic and anisohypermetropic amblyopia. Int Ophthalmol 2009.29 (4):231-7

Meenakshi S, T. S. Surendran. Incomitant Strabimsus. In Diagnostic Procedures in Ophthalmology. 2nd Ed. Jaypee Highlight Medical Publishers. 2009

Bhujbal Pritam, Meenakshi S. History of strabismus surgery. Journal of TNOA.2008. 46 (1): 57-60

Mamatha G, Srilekha S, Meenakshi S, Kumaramanickavel G. Screening of the RPE65 gene in the Asian Indian patients with leber congenital amaurosis. Ophthalmic Genet. 2008;29(2):73-8.

Kaushik Murali, Meenakshi S, Surendran T S. Current options in the management of nystagmus. Journal of TNOA. 2007.45 (2): 37-39.

Jayalakshmi L, Kalpa N, Srikanth R. Cycloplegic Refraction in Children, Sci J Med & Vis ResFoun 2014; XXXII: 30–32.

T S Surendran, Srikanth R. Recent advances in Pediatric ophthalmology. Ind J Strab and Pediatric Ophthalmology. 1(11)2014: 3-6.

T S Surendran, Srikanth.R. Guest editorial- Amblyopia: Never ceases to amaze. Jour nal of Tamilnadu Ophthalmic Association. Vol 52(4); Nov 2014:466-469

Praveen KV, Ramasubramanian S, Swaminathan M. Strabismus in orbital trauma- A major review. Ind Journal of Strabismology and Pediatr Ophthal. Vol1 (1).June 2015.

Nishanth S, Ramasubramanian S. New and complex strabismus surgeries: exciting times! Sci J Med & Vis Res Foun 2015;XXXIII:116–121.

Srikanth Ramasubramanian, Bikramjit Pal. Ch13. E-learning resources for postgraduates. Essentials for ophthalmology postgraduates. 1st Ed. In collaboration with the AIOS. Jan 2016

Hussaindeen JR, Mani R, Rakshit A, Ramasubramanian S, Vittal Praveen S.Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult. J Optom.2016 Apr 4.

Pediatric ophthalmology Dept Consultants (Dr Surendran, Dr Sumita Agarkar, Dr Meenakshi, Dr Kavitha Kalaivani, Dr Srikanth Ramasubramanian, Dr Akila Ramkumar ) - Chief Contributors in the development of the book “Preferred Practices in pediatric ophthalmology for India” in collaboration with ORBIS.

En coup de sabre – An eye opener , Dr V. Akila Ramkumar, Dr Bipasha Mukherjee , Journal of TNOA Aug 2013 , Vol 53: issue 3, 59-61

An Interesting case of Blepharoptosis, Dr V. Akila Ramkumar , Dr Bipasha Mukherjee , Insight ;2012: Vol XXX, Issue 3, 40-43

Esthesioneuroblastoma – An Atypical Presentaion, Dr. V. Akila Ramkumar , Dr. Kavitha Kalaivani , Sri Ramachandra Journal of Medicine , 2012; 5:26-27

Aquaporin-4 antibody(NMO-Ab) status in patients with severe optic neuritis in India, Int Ophthalmology , Dec 15; 35(6):801-6, Selvakumar Ambika, Mahalakshmi , Lily Theresa, Akila Ramkumar, Deepak Arjundas

Nasolacrial duct obstruction : Does it really increase the risk of amblyopia in children? V.Akila Ramkumar, Sumita Agarkar, Bipasha Mukherjee, Indian J .Ophthalmology,2016;64:496-9

Surgical Management of small angle strabismus , V.Akila Ramkumar, Ketaki S Subedar, Sci J Med & Vis ResFoun, Vol XXXIII,no3,oct2015:135-8

Director Dr. Surendran T S
Deputy Director Dr. Sumita Agarkar
Consultants Dr. Akila Ramkumar
Dr. Kavitha Kalaivani Natarajan
Dr. Meenakshi S
Dr. Mittal Shruti Rajendra (Kolkatta)
Dr. Sujata Guha (Kolkatta)
Dr. Sudipta Sahana (Kolkatta)
Dr. Sheth Siddharth Kamlesh (Kolkatta)
Director - Paediatric Ophthalmology
Dr. T S Surendran
Sankara Nethralaya (Main Campus)
No. 41 (old 18), College Road,
Chennai - 600 006, Tamil Nadu, India
E-Mail ID:
Tel: 91-044-28271616 (12 lines)
Deputy Director - Paediatric Ophthalmology
Dr. Sumita Agarkar
Sankara Nethralaya (Main Campus)
No. 41 (old 18), College Road,
Chennai - 600 006, Tamil Nadu, India
E-Mail ID:
Tel: 91-044-28271616 (12 lines)